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Index of Butterflies & Moths

Butterflies & Moths
Butterflies of North America


General References for Butterflies

Douglas, M.M. 1986. The lives of butterflies. The University of	Michigan Press, 
     Ann Arbor. 141 pp. [ISBN 0-472-10078-5]

Glassberg, J. 1993. Butterflies through binoculars: a field guide to butterflies
     in the Boston-New Yrok-Washington Region. Oxford University Press, New York. 
     160 pp., 40 color plates. [ISBN 0-19-507983-3]

Opler, P.A. 1994. Peterson first guide to butterflies and moths. Houghton Mifflin
     Co., Boston. 128 pp. [ISBN 0-395-67072-1]   <>

Opler, P.A. and J. Ebner. 1995. Audubon Society's Butterflies for beginners [video].
     Mastervision, New York 

Opler, P.A. and G.O. Krizek. 1984. Butterflies east of the Great Plains. Johns 
     Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 294 pp. [ISBN 0-8018-2938-0] 

Opler, P.A. and V. Malikul. 1992. Peterson field guide to butterflies of eastern 
     North America. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. 396 pp. [ISBN 0-395-63279-X, 
     paper; O-395-36452-3, cloth] <>

Pyle, R.M. 1981. The Audubon Society field guide to North American  butterflies. 
     A.A. Knopf, New York. 924 pp. [ISBN 0-394-51914-0] 

Pyle, R.M. 1992. The Audubon Society handbook for butterfly watchers. Houghton Mifflin
     Co., Boston. 274 pp. [ISBN 0-684-18151-7]

Sbordoni, V. and S. Forestiero. 1985. Butterflies of the World. Time Books, 
     New York. 312 pp. 

Scott, J.A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford,
     Calif. 583 pp. [ISBN 0-8047-1205-0]

Vane-Wright, R.I. and P.R. Ackery, editors. 1984. The biology of butterflies. Academic 
     Press, London. 429 pp. [ISBN 0-12-713750-5]

Conservation, Management, and Monitoring of Butterflies

Collins, N.M. 1987. Legislation to conserve insects in Europe. The Amateur Entomologists' 
     Society, A.E.S. Pamphlet #13, 80 pp.

Collins, N.M. and M.G. Morris. 1985. Theatened swallowtail butterflies of the world: the 
     IUCN Red Data Book. IUCN (World Conservation Union), Cambridge, U.K. and Gland, 
     Switzerland. 401 pages, 8 color plates. [ISBN 2-88032-603-6]

Collins, N.M. and J.A. Thomas, editors. 1991. The conservation of insects and their 
     habitats. Academic Press, London. 450 pp. [ISBN 0-12-181370-3]
Covell, C.V., Jr.  1999.  The butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) of Kentucky: an 
     annotated checklist.  Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission Scientific and 
     Technical Series 6:1-220.

Malcolm, S.B. and M.P. Zalucki, editors. 1992. Biology and conservation of the Monarch 
     butterfly. Natural history Museum of Los angeles County, Science Series No. 38. 
     419 pp. [ISSN 0079-0943]

New, T.R. 1984. Insect conservation: an Australian perspective. Series Entomologica 32. 
     Dr. W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 184 pp. [ISBN 90-6193-507-5]

New, T.R., editor. 1993. Conservation biology of Lycaenidae (Butterflies). Occasional 
     Paper of the IUCN Species Survival Commission No. 8, Gland Switzerland. 173 pp. 
     [ISBN 2-8317-0159-7]

Opler, P.A. 1976. The parade of passing species: a survey of extinctions in the U.S. 
     Science Teacher 43(9):30-34. 

Pollard, E., M.L. Hall, and T.J. Bibby. 1986. Monitoring the abundance of butterflies: 
     1976-1985. Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Monks Wood Experiment Station, Abbots 
     Ripton, U.K. [ISBN 0-86139-357-0]

Pollard, E. and T.J. Yates. 1993. Monitoring butterflies for ecology and conservation. 
     Chapman & Hall, London.

Powell, J.A. 1995. Lepidoptera inventories in the continental United States. Pages 
     168-170 in E. T. LaRoe, G. S. Farris, C. E. Puckett, P. D. Doran, and M. J. Mac, 
     editors. Our living resources: a report to the nation on the distribution, 
     abundance, and health of U.S. plants, animals, and ecosystems. National 
     Biological Service, Washington, D.C.

Pullin, A.S. 1995. Ecology and conservation of butterflies. Chapman & Hall, London. 
     363 pp. [ISBN 0-412-56970-1]

Pyle, R.M., M. Bentzien, and P. Opler. 1981. Insect conservation. Annual Review of 
     Entomology 26:233-258.

Swengel, A.B. and P.A. Opler, editors. 1993-1996. NABA-Xerces Fourth of July 
     Butterfly Counts. North American Butterfly Association, Morristown, 
     New Jersey.

Swengel, A.B. and S.R. Swengel. 1995. The tall-grass butterfly 	community. Pages 
     174-175 in E. T. LaRoe, G. S. Farris, C. E. Puckett, P. D. Doran, and M. J. 
     Mac, editors. Our living resources: a report to the nation on the distribution,
     abundance, and health of U.S. plants, animals, and ecosystems. National 
     Biological Service, Washington, D.C. 

Wells, S.M., R.M. Pyle, and N.M. Collins, compilers. 1983. The IUCN Invertebrate 
     Red Data Book. IUCN (World Conservation Union), Gland, Switzerland. 632 pp. 
     [ISBN 2-88032-602-X] 

Butterflies of the eastern United States (Opler)

Literature reviewed included all numbers of:
  1. Atala
  2. Bulletin of the Allyn Museum
  3. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society
  4. Journal of the Research on the Lepidoptera
  5. Kentucky Lepidopterist
  6. Lepidopterists' News
  7. Mid-continent Lepidoptera
  8. Ohio Lepidopterists
  9. Phaeton
  10. Southeastern Lepidopterist's News
  11. Southern Lepidopterists' News
  12. All published state and regional Lepidoptera or butterfly treatments
  13. Other articles, including those cited by Field, dos Passos and Masters (1974: Smithsonian Contribution to Zoology 157).

Atlas of Butterflies of Western USA (Stanford and Opler)

Space prohibits the listing of the more than 300 books and articles surveyed for western North American butterfly records. All known books in the past 50 years covering all or part of the region have been examined, as well as most issues of the following periodicals since 1940, and a few strategic earlier works of historical value:  
  • Agricultural Experiment Station University of Wyoming Sci. Monographs
  • Alberta Naturalist
  • American Museum Novitates
  • Annals of the Entomological Society of America
  • Biological Journal of the Linnaean Society
  • Blue Jay
  • Bulletin of the Allyn Museum
  • Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History
  • Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society
  • Bulletin of the Grand Canyon Natural History Association
  • Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences
  • Bulletin of the University of Kansas
  • Canadian Entomologist
  • Canadian Journal of Zoology
  • Continental Lepidopterist
  • Ecology
  • Entomological News
  • Fort Hayes University Studies
  • Great Basin Naturalist
  • Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society
  • Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society
  • Journal of the New York Entomological Society
  • Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera
  • Kentucky Lepidopterist
  • Lepidopterists' News, and News of the Lepidopterists' Society including all Season Summaries
  • Lyman Entomological Museum and Laboratory Memoirs
  • Memoirs of the Lepidopterists' Society
  • Mid Continent Lepidoptera Series
  • Minot State University Science Monographs
  • Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Science Series
  • North Dakota State University Science Series
  • Northwest Lepidopterists' Association Newsletter
  • Occasional Publications of the Nevada State Museum
  • Pan-Pacific Entomologist
  • Papilio, New Series
  • Plateau
  • Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • Psyche
  • Publicaciones Especiales del Museo de Zoologia, Universidad National Autonoma de Mexico
  • Quaestiones Entomologicae
  • Revista de la Sociedad Mexicana de Lepidopterologia
  • Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
  • Southern Lepidopterists' News
  • Southern Methodist University Studies
  • Texas Parks and Wildlife Department publications
  • Time Magazine! (we didn't cover Pravda)
  • Transactions of the American Entomological Society
  • Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History
  • University of California Publications in Entomology
  • Utahensis and Utah Lepidopterist
  • Wasmann Journal of Biology
  • Xerces Society publications: Wings, Atala, Fourth of July Butterfly Count reports

Informal works, maps, regional lists:

Austin, Bailowitz, Cary, Curtis, Ellis, Ely, Emmels, Freeman, Gillette, Hinchliff, Holland, Kendall, Kendall/Mcguire, Kohler, Kondla, Marrone, Mattoon, McGuire/Rickard, Mullins, Opler, Pelham, Pyle, Rosche, Savage, Shepard, Spomer, Stanford, Toliver/Holland, Warren/Brock.

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